Book a bed and breakfast or a holiday home in the district of Valmaura, near the Rice Mill (Risiera) of San Sabba, a place of memory and of great historical importance monument whose visit is essential during a stay in Trieste.
In 1913 a big industrial complex for the rice refining process was built in the district of San Sabba: it was composed of some large buildings, one of which has six floors, arranged around two courtyards. The whole complex was surrounded by a tall and strong wall enclosing a rectangle area.
The complex, commonly known as Risiera (rice mill building), felt into disuse, was requisitioned by the Germans in the October 1943 and used as the SS barracks. It then became a collection center for political prisoners and Jews, who were then conveyed to other Nazi camps, and finally become a storehouse for property confiscated to the Jews. Although it is considered the only extermination camp in Italy, but actually when it assumed this function, the area was no longer part of Italy: at that time the Germans, recognizing the strategic importance that the Giulia region, decided to detach it from the rest Northern Italy where it had established the Social Republic of Salò. In one of the smaller buildings of the complex were obtained 17 cells, in which were kept from 4 to 6 prisoners usually destined to be killed. In another building, in large common dormitories, they were massed civilians and Jews destined to be deported to Germany. In the inner courtyard, connected with a 40 meter high chimney, it was located the drying oven that was turned into a crematorium. Executions normally took place at night, with open speakers at full volume and roar of engines, to cover the screams of the victims.
According to reliable sources the crematorium went into operation April 4, 1944 to eliminate the bodies of 72 hostages shot to Opicina and 51 hostages hanged a few days later in via Ghega. It was not possible to define how many people were cremated in the “Risiera” but over 20,000 people were inprisoned in that building and most of them never came back. To cover up their crimes the Nazis, on the night between 28 and 29 April 1945, blew up the building where the crematorium was located: nowadays still remain the buildings with cells and the chimney shape on the wall where it was leaning: in the same point was placed a symbolic iron spiral.
Civic museum della risiera di S. Sabba - National Monument
Via Giovanni Palatucci 5
Tel. +39 040 826202
Fax +39 040 825673
every day from 9 to 19. Closed on December 25th and January 1st.